Kurds in Lebanon

Posted on July 24th, 2006 by piling

As Lebanon is temporarily the center of international policy, let’s have a look on Kurdish population in Lebanon.They have been studied in detail Etudes kurdes n°7 by Lokman Meho et Farah Kawtharami, and I make here a resume for non-French readers.
Kurds mostly arrived in Lebanon at the end of the WWI, and during Sheikh Saïd’s revolt in 1925, and during all 30s, when they fled Turkey, which at this time oppressed savagely any Kurdish activism, and practiced genrously massacres and genocidary actions. France, which had a mandate on Lebanon and Syria, ruled them in a softer way and, more important, instead of banning Kurdish movements, instrumentalized them in the conflict it had with Turkey concerning disputed terroritories between Syria and Turkey (Nisîbîn, Cizîr, etc). Since 60s, there was too an economical migration, but if we except those, most of Kuridsh migrants in Lebanon are originated of Mardin region.
They divide themselves as 2 linguistic groupes, those speaking kurmanji (northern-Kurdish) and the Mardallis speaking an Arab dialect (with Kurdish influence). L. Meho thinks that Kurds are the secund “ethnic” minority group after Armenians, though there has been no census since 1932. Before 1985 their number could have been around 70.000, and as most of them fled during the Civil War then they have probably decreased.
Kurds in Lebanon are, in their social and economical aspects, one of the weakest, the less wealthy and the less educated communisties of the country. They were majoritary peasants, workers, and exercised a lot of jobs without diploma. A major cause of this situation is their problem of nationality. For until 1994, most of them were not Lebanese citizens because they did not ask the nationality before 1941, (they saw it useless). But during the WWII, they realized that having no Lebanese passports deprived them of food-cards (because of war restriction, people have right to buit only a certain amount do food and first necessity goods). Before 1940, it was easy though to become Lebanese : just need to have lived 5 years in the country without interruption, or having married a Lebanese citizen. But in 1940 a law restricted this access to Lebanese citizenship.

In 1960, Kemal Joumblatt gave them a “undetermined citizenship”, which allowed them to obtain for their children borned in the country to become Lebanese. But this status was cancelled in 1962 because of Christian opposition : the former supported Armenians’ naturalization but refused to give Lebanese nationality to any muslim groups, fearing to lost their demographical weight comparing with the muslims’ one.

The government then instaured “substitution card”, which allowed them to go in and out the country, and to study in public schools, but no more (this disposition is quite similar to the weird status of 800.000 Syrian Kurds when their Syrian citizenship had been cancelled by Damascus in a campaign of arabization).
This “substitution card” did not give them the right to vote and to work for the State. It was a sort of “Green cards”, with the right to stay and to work in the country, but hereditary.The issue was solved by Rafik Hariri on June 21th juin 1994, who offered Lebanese nationality to the majority of non-Lebanese Kurds (between 10.000 and 18.000). He faced at this occasion a strong hostility from Christian Lebaneses.It is probable that this historical fact handicaped for a long time Kurds in Lebanon and could explain that still nowadays they are in majority poor workers and the less educated group. Other sunnits consider them essentielly as “non-Arabs”, though non-muslim groups consider them as Sunnits. But their recent citizenship (and their new votes) led politician sunnit leaders to pay a relative attention to Kurds, with vague promises to improve their life.
In another hand, Kurds of Lebanon are not isolated from the rest of Kurdish people. Many Kurdish militants fled Syria and were active in Lebanon after 1958. Kurdish revolts against Baghdad and Ankara had an impact on the political awake of Lebanese Kurds.Thus the Kurdish Democratic Party of Lebanon was created in 1970, as a Lebanese branch of Mustafa Barzani’s party. It was supported too by the Kurdish Democratic Party of Syria. It has had later many many scissions and internal rivalries (Lebanese Kurdish, like in Syria, seem enjoying amibian separations until the whole dissolution of the original movement).Beside of parties there are numerous associations, Sport clubs, etc, ruled by great and powerful  families, in the same schema of the Lebanese clanism, with the same system of patron-clients. The importance of these associations (like Al Rawdah) could be explained by the long period in which Kurds could not vote.
When their own parties could not take part in the political life of Lebanon, Kurds sought for the support of Sunni leaders in 60s and 70s. During the civil war, firstly neutral, they resisted against Christian Phalangists who had expelled them from Eastern-Beyrouth with Palestinians. They fought with Nasserists, Communists, Palestinians groups like FPLP. In the same time, PKK members went from Turkey to learn guerilla science in Lebanese camps, and peshmergas from Iraq, or Syrian Leftists joined sometimes Feddayins, in a vague and wide anti-US imperialism socialist movement of liberation (even if USA syupported (in a treacheous way) Mustafa Barzanis’ revolution in 1975).
Kurds had also fought Amal militia, probably because they are sunnis, and they even  allied with Druses… but at the end they realized that they have struggled for nuts, and received no kind of help or reparation, from Arab muslims as from Christians.The PKK of course, has its members in Lebanon, but their number considerably decreased since Öcalan’s arrest. The emergence of a quite independant Kurdish State in Southern Kurdistan could have strenghened the prestige and the influence of the KDP (in Syria as in Lebanon) but if we analyse the last declaration of the KDP-Lebanon leader, we could see that he aims essentially to have a place in the political Lebanese arena, perhaps by wainting in the same time a support and even a financial help from Hewlêr.(source : La Communauté kurde au Liban : le présent et l’avenir ; L. J MEHO et Farah KAWTHARAMI, Etudes kurdes n° 7, mai 2005.)



Posted in Diaspora, History, Politic | 5 Comments

5 Responses to “Kurds in Lebanon”

  1. Vladimir says:

    Is that “Etudes des Kurds” relatated to Kurdish studies? I also read something about Kurds in Lebanon in one of their books.

  2. piling says:

    Not related though some authors have written in both reviews and then perhapd that L. Meho’s work has been published in English in Kurdish Studies.

  3. Vladimir says:

    You also know some books about Kurds in the Caucasus formed Soviet Union?

  4. piling says:

    “The Kurds of Azerbaijan and Armenia”, Julie Flint, ed. Kurdish Human Rights Project, 1998.

    “De Koerden in de (Voormalige) Sovjetunie (1921-1994)”, Herman Taels, ed. Kurdish Institute of Brussels, 1997.

  5. xelef-botan says:

    thank you for the info heval piling!

Leave a Reply

  • tylenol dosage weight
  • hives
  • missed 3 days
  • free program
  • there injection
  • can you take d mucinex dm together
  • how to get prescription online
  • oral suspension flavor
  • purchase online
  • dementia
  • y la cesarea
  • costo
  • quitting
  • buy no prescription
  • is a generic drug
  • side effects heartburn
  • for generalized anxiety disorder
  • can take ambien
  • dosage directions
  • vs. vs. which is best
  • i don't care
  • 150 mg
  • libidoverlust
  • ocd worse
  • e bula
  • injection procedure
  • dosage strengths
  • herpes transmission rate while on
  • and lyrica
  • there generic form
  • epilepsy and alcohol
  • side effects
  • vacanze
  • stopping suddenly
  • price comparison between
  • tablets side effects
  • novartis hct coupons
  • 20 mg 3 times a week
  • 4 mg tabletas
  • tylenol pm
  • incidence tardive dyskinesia
  • best flavoring
  • with xanax
  • v.
  • taking tramadol
  • snorting
  • pbs
  • risks stopping
  • is good for anxiety
  • vs
  • 4 dollar list
  • before or after meal
  • half life side effects
  • informacion del medicamento
  • mechanism action
  • how long will make me tired
  • price in pakistan
  • what is generic for
  • side effects
  • for systemic candida
  • reflux infants
  • moody behavior
  • period calculator
  • e gravidanza
  • dose adults
  • blog
  • after hair transplant
  • 5 mg
  • and side effects
  • 20mg fta 4 st n1
  • teenagers side effects
  • can i mix and
  • check progesterone
  • dosis de forte
  • liver
  • and smoking weed
  • focal dystonia
  • side effects
  • can i use on ringworm
  • efeito simile
  • 6160395222
  • generic name
  • y la dieta
  • chewables children recall
  • hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis
  • for penile yeast infection
  • ya hay en mexico
  • pediatric dosage
  • semisodium valproate
  • does cause diabetes
  • withdrawal
  • and
  • sore throat pain
  • renal dose
  • efectos secundarios del medicamento
  • does cause nose bleeds
  • stopping abruptly
  • remedies withdrawal symptoms
  • pregnancy risk
  • trial pack
  • show up drug test
  • rome metro
  • every 8 hours
  • male fertility
  • bleeding while taking
  • indications therapeutiques
  • interaction with
  • or lyrica
  • co jest n
  • success stories age 40
  • can cause dizziness
  • medication uses
  • compare soma and
  • pasol von mp3 download
  • e anticoncezionali
  • prix quebec
  • antibiotic with alcohol
  • side effects hct 80mg
  • 160 mg
  • side effects in men
  • price walgreens
  • alternatives solutab
  • feline nausea
  • make you tired
  • neck stiffness
  • e
  • nclex questions
  • skin reaction treatment
  • nsaid
  • prozac d
  • tamox e tpc
  • throwing up
  • older women
  • or
  • prendre 2
  • erectile dysfunction
  • and valium together
  • bula pomada
  • t for acne reviews
  • blood thinner
  • can you take oxycodone together
  • difference between
  • yeast infection bleeding
  • flushing after
  • hd and weight gain
  • how fast it works
  • can cause a false positive pregnancy test
  • used treat bipolar disorder
  • side effects after stopping
  • coming off patent
  • if allergic to penicillin can you take
  • efectos secundarios de semanal
  • medicare coverage
  • dosage by mouth
  • dose for otitis media
  • vs. for sinusitis
  • 10 mg plm
  • how long does it take for to begin working
  • dosage for uti
  • recreational dosage
  • 700 mg
  • tablets weight loss
  • mulher pode tomar o masculino
  • antihistamine
  • medicare part d coverage of
  • indications children
  • dosage 40 mg
  • skin breakout
  • combination
  • used treat canker sores
  • taken at night
  • costo vs
  • delivery
  • per i denti
  • order canada
  • 30 mg yan etkileri nelerdir
  • adderall vs
  • yeast
  • order canada
  • buy in india
  • forest pharmaceuticals
  • for losing weight
  • is for mild acne
  • from mexico
  • experiences bipolar
  • 415a review
  • order online
  • and depression anxiety
  • posologie iv
  • fachinformation doorway
  • side effects women hair loss
  • y alcohol
  • half-life time
  • 100 mg
  • versus toprol xl
  • and
  • corporation board of directors
  • drug interaction
  • is a new drug
  • using and namenda together
  • treatment
  • spacey
  • can you drink alcohol while on ds
  • long term use
  • stomach pain after taking
  • tendon weakness
  • memory pills
  • lyme disease
  • side effects prostate
  • does cause loss appetite
  • fever after
  • 5-htp with
  • o que A o medicamento
  • ointment vs cream
  • 30 mg weekly
  • leg pain
  • usual dose
  • enhance trial
  • can you mix and tylenol
  • safety during pregnancy
  • headache side effects
  • for dog ear infection
  • sprinkles for babies
  • anti nausea medication pregnancy
  • long acting
  • buy generic online no prescription
  • is better than
  • 25mg
  • shampoo daily use
  • cream for vitiligo
  • side effects dry mouth
  • es dosing children
  • dal 3 al 7 giorno
  • pristiq interaction
  • versus
  • como conseguir en mexico
  • high blood pressure
  • fsgs
  • how fast does start working
  • smpc
  • month 5 still breaking out
  • macrocytic anemia
  • psychosis dosage
  • 250mg tablets side effects
  • dosage forms
  • taking year
  • health teaching
  • strong muscle relaxer
  • buy on line
  • medical definition
  • antidepressant drugs side effects
  • side effects on fetus
  • potassium or
  • buy weight loss
  • allegra d d
  • can you take and aspirin together
  • off label
  • 6 meses gestacion
  • weaning off
  • versus vyvanse
  • side effects of long term use of
  • is the same as
  • side effects elderly patients
  • for urinary frequency
  • treatment for gastritis
  • iv prescribing information
  • posologia per ossiuri
  • nursing considerations
  • erectile dysfunction medication
  • tingling arms legs
  • comprar en usa
  • en capsulas
  • generic
  • xr and weight loss
  • what is the difference between and
  • failure next step
  • children dosage
  • can you take while breastfeeding
  • 700 a cosa serve
  • does treat premature ejaculation
  • xr 500 para que serve
  • dosage throat infection
  • cvs pharmacy
  • group strep sensitive
  • symptoms overdose
  • acne coming back after
  • dose pediatric
  • can lose weight
  • does slow down metabolism
  • with
  • ipw-200
  • dosing peds
  • c nistatina
  • can you snort xr
  • 10 mg
  • numbness
  • drug pda
  • does cause hypotension
  • chemo drug
  • klonopin side effects
  • cream 5 side effects
  • d
  • can take panadol together
  • vs
  • can i take expired
  • newsletter subscription
  • purpose
  • use
  • 400 yan etkileri
  • e depakene
  • picolinato cromo
  • or malarone
  • tapering off 40 mg
  • birth control
  • para que sirve el
  • para ninos
  • interactions other medications
  • a otAhotnAnA
  • success long cycles
  • average weight gain
  • sublingual tablet
  • generic names
  • green m&m
  • generic
  • how long does it take to get pregnant using
  • and ulcerative colitis lawsuit
  • can you mix and
  • can treat bv
  • dosage oral infection
  • side effects pancreatitis
  • happens you mix alcohol
  • dosage preseptal cellulitis
  • advil together
  • using to get high
  • envie d uriner
  • lek refundowany
  • 25 mg effects
  • allergic reactions d
  • can i take allegra with d
  • generic problems
  • overdose management
  • overdose symptoms
  • buy canadian online pharmacy
  • mastitis
  • taking together
  • tylenol interaction
  • can cause night sweats
  • pregnancy side effects
  • maximum dose day
  • ovulation after days 3-7
  • pregnancy first trimester
  • d kidney stones
  • safe take
  • 750 ming yun etkileri
  • e neoplasie
  • e grecia
  • et acne
  • expectorant capsule
  • cmi
  • dosage for a 1 year old
  • gia cua thuoc
  • red eyes
  • is d safe for children
  • side effects restless leg syndrome
  • stopping
  • perioral dermatitis treatment
  • thuoc 20mg
  • tomar 4 meses embarazo
  • mechanism of action
  • taking and progesterone cream
  • class action lawsuit against
  • dark urine taking
  • bleeding nose
  • safe take while pregnant
  • using uti
  • does stop pain
  • side effects fever
  • dose for subclinical hypothyroidism
  • safe while nursing
  • side effects
  • and interaction
  • side effects hair loss
  • 3 cycles sous
  • side effects depression
  • difference between allegra and
  • otc over counter
  • how supplied
  • is for what
  • and together
  • discontinued
  • generic drug
  • ds liver damage
  • d sleeplessness side effects
  • waiting period pregnancy
  • chances having multiples taking
  • on nhs
  • meglio or
  • fresca soda
  • cream fda approval
  • .3mg side effects