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Food Room

a place for talking about food, specially Kurdish food recipes

Re: Food Room

PostAuthor: Anthea » Thu Aug 20, 2020 9:13 am

Single breast cancer treatment
as good as a course


A single targeted dose of radiotherapy could be as effective at treating breast cancer as a full course, a long-term study suggests

Researchers said people who received the shorter treatment were also less likely to die of other cancers and heart disease in the following five years.

But cancer specialists have raised concerns about the study's methodology.

A fifth of patients in the study received extra doses of radiotherapy.

The study's lead author, Prof Jayant Vaidya, said he had expected a proportion of the women to need extra radiotherapy, since post-op tests could reveal tumours were bigger or more aggressive than expected.

This still left 80% of women benefiting from a shorter course of treatment with fewer side-effects, he said.

Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy (TARGIT-IORT) involves a single, targeted dose of radiation inside the breast, immediately after the tumour is removed.

This type of radiotherapy, developed by doctors at University College London (UCL), is delivered using a small device placed inside the breast, directly on the site of the cancer.

It means patients can receive radiation treatment at the same time as their operation to have their cancer removed.

And they shouldn't have to return for any further treatments, which can involve 15 to 30 hospital visits for people having a standard course of radiotherapy.

This treatment is already available on the NHS in a small number of clinics that have the right equipment.

During the pandemic, NHS England has reduced the number of visits people need to make for standard radiotherapy after surgery to about five.

The TARGIT-A trial involved 2,298 women with breast cancer in 10 countries being given either targeted therapy during surgery or a standard course of radiotherapy between 2000 and 2012.

The study reported at the 10-year mark that a single dose of radiation during surgery was as effective as a prolonged course.

This latest study, which followed women up for five years after their treatment, confirmed that conclusion, the researchers said.

And it found fewer in the group receiving the single-dose treatment had died from other causes, including heart disease, lung problems and other cancers.

UCL said previous studies had shown the treatment also had fewer radiation-related side-effects, including pain and changes to the breast's appearance.
'Cancer-free'

Writer Marcelle Bernstein received the one-off treatment eight years ago, and has had the all-clear ever since.

"Within two months of diagnosis I was cancer-free," she said.

And, having seen her mother die of breast cancer 25 years earlier, she felt it was important she "wouldn't be a cancer sufferer longer than necessary".

"I just liked the idea of something treating just the tiny area affected and not touching the rest of the body," she said.

However, 20% of the women in the study given a single dose of radiation did go on to have further radiotherapy treatments, when tests discovered "unsuspected higher-risk factors".

Concerns

Joanne Haviland at the Institute of Cancer Research raised concerns about some of the definitions the researchers used in their study.

"Conventional radiotherapy has evolved considerably since the design of the TARGIT-A trial, including shorter treatment schedules and smaller volumes of breast treated, with greatly improved patient experience and extremely high levels of clinical cure at very low cost to the NHS."

Martin Ledwick of Cancer Research UK said: "As the women taking part in the study received radiotherapy at the same time as having a lumpectomy, doctors weren't able to analyse their tumours in advance to see if they would need a longer course of radiotherapy until after their operation.

"While 20% of the women in this study did then need additional treatment, 80% of patients were spared this."

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-53834130
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Re: Food Room

PostAuthor: Anthea » Thu Aug 27, 2020 3:18 am

Do you cheat when you eat?

Do you cheat when you eat? The nine rules to a healthy diet... that just one in 1,000 of us stick to

    Experts compared diets of more than half a million Brits with PHE Eatwell Guide

    Fewer than one third of Britons meet at least five suggestions from document

    Tips include eating less than 70g of red meat a day and slashing sugary foods
Just one in 1,000 people sticks to all nine official healthy eating guidelines, a major study found.

Experts compared the diets of more than half a million Britons with the recommendations in Public Health England's Eatwell Guide.

Fewer than one third of us meet at least five of the suggestions. And just over four in ten manage between three and four.

Worryingly, a minuscule number consistently follow all nine of the tips, which include eating less than 70g of red meat a day and slashing sugary food intake.

This is despite new evidence showing it could add years to your life.

Some of the guidelines in particular are ignored, with fewer than one in ten people consuming enough fibre.

Experts compared the diets of more than half a million Britons with the recommendations in Public Health England's Eatwell Guide

Click to Enlarge:
1252

The study found those who stuck to five or more of the nine recommendations were seven per cent less likely to die than those who followed two or fewer.

Eating five a day was enough to reduce the risk of dying early by ten per cent, the research by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and the University of Oxford found.

Currently just 29 per cent of adults and 18 per cent of children meet the daily fruit and vegetable portion recommendation.

The study is the latest evidence of how poor diets are fuelling the obesity crisis.

It also highlights how healthy diets are important in preventing climate change by cutting emissions. Following at least five of the guidelines can reduce greenhouse gases by 30 per cent.

The research will raise further questions about the effectiveness of Public Health England, which is being scrapped after it was blamed for a series of coronavirus fiascos.

Professor Alan Dangour, the study's author, said: 'We urge the Government to develop a stronger joined-up approach to tackle the impending health and environmental crises.'

Professor Andrew Salter, from the University of Nottingham, added: 'Perhaps one of the most remarkable findings is the low level of adherence to the guidelines currently in the UK.'

Dr Alison Tedstone, chief nutritionist at Public Health England, said: 'The challenge remains to help more people follow this advice.'
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Re: Food Room

PostAuthor: Anthea » Sat Aug 29, 2020 1:33 am

5 food mistakes to avoid
if you're trying to lose weight


You’ve been eating healthily, working out and getting in your 10,000 steps (nearly) every day, but the weight still isn’t coming down. What’s going on?

If you’ve been sticking to your plan but not getting the results you’d expect, it could be that you’re unknowingly making mistakes that are preventing you from losing weight.

Here are five common food mistakes that could be derailing your weight loss:

Skipping meals

Time restricted eating, or 'intermittent fasting', has become increasingly popular and it can be supportive in helping you to lose weight. If restricting your eating window each day works for you, great, but it’s important to do it consistently. Just skipping breakfast here and there is more likely to end in trouble, as it can lead to overeating later in the day.

Some clients who come to see me have been skipping meals, only to find themselves with uncontrollable sugar cravings come 4pm. Or they have dinner, and then can’t stop raiding the cupboards after they’ve finished. Having healthy, balanced meals at regular intervals means you’re less likely to overeat later on.

Danger drinks

A common mistake I see people making when they’re trying to lose weight is forgetting to consider drinks. Coffee shop hot drinks, fizzy drinks and cocktails can often be hiding huge amounts of sugar. Educate yourself. Check the website of your favourite coffee shop to see how much sugar is in your favourite flavoured latte. Look at the back of the can of your fizzy drink, even the healthier-looking ones can be deceiving. Opt for dry wines or Champagne over cocktails. Small changes like this can make a big difference.

Forgetting fibre

If you’re trying to lose weight it can be easy to focus on what to eat less of, but if there’s one thing to increase, it’s your vegetable intake. We get fibre from vegetables, which fills us up and keeps us regular. You can also eat substantial portions of most vegetables (especially green veg) without dramatically increasing your calorie intake. Veggies don’t have to be boring. Think roasted Mediterranean vegetables, ratatouille, stir-fries, stews and veggie noodles topped with something delicious. Losing weight doesn’t have to mean going hungry.

Opting for low fat foods

Fat gained a bad reputation due to it’s higher calorie content per gram compared to carbohydrates and protein, but we now know that there us much more to weight loss than simply calories in vs calories out. Foods that are sold as ‘low fat’ are often highly processed and higher in sugar than the original version and as a general rule, I don’t recommend them.

Fat is an essential part of our diet, it has many important roles including hormone production and helping our body absorb fat soluble nutrients like vitamins A, D and E. The type of fats you’re including is key, focus on healthy fats like avocados, oily fish, unroasted nuts and seed and keep your portion sizes in check.

Thinking all calories are created equal

While we are on the subject of calories, it’s worth making sure that yours are coming from the best sources. It’s easy to be tempted to buy processed diet foods with the calorie count handily displayed on the front, but fresh, nutritious meals are a far better option. Base your meals around a quality protein source like fish, eggs or tofu, a moderate portion of healthy fats and plenty of vegetables or salad, which will fill and sustain you until your next meal. Meal prep can be helpful here, so find some recipes that you can batch cook in advance.

If you’re doing all of the above but still struggling to lose weight, try keeping a food diary on an app like MyFitnessPal. It can often be an eye opening experience.

https://www.standard.co.uk/lifestyle/we ... 65251.html
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Re: Food Room

PostAuthor: Anthea » Sat Aug 29, 2020 1:48 am

Improve your immunity in 21 days

The links are undeniable: having underlying health conditions and being overweight put us at a significantly greater risk of COVID-19

Countless research studies have proven it. Boris is on a mission to tackle it. And now a new book sets out guidelines for exactly how you can improve your health and protect yourself in just 21 days.

It is understood that eighty per cent of chronic disease is attributable to lifestyle and linked to environmental factors. That is to say, that eighty percent of common diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease can be prevented with healthier diet and lifestyle choices.

We know that losing weight and improving our health can help us prevent these diseases, but how can it help us fight Covid?

What is metabolic health?

In his book, The 21-Day Immunity Plan, Aseem Malhotra details the strong link between poor metabolic health and its impact on our immune health. In simple terms, metabolic can be explained as the state of balance the body maintains between storing fat and burning it for energy. Once this balance is disrupted it impacts negatively on our health in a variety of ways.

Poor metabolic health is directly linked to the development of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and stroke and has also linked to the development of cancer and dementia. It is assessed using five markers: blood glucose (sugar) levels, blood pressure, waist circumference and cholesterol profile.
How being overweight affects our immunity

Poor metabolic health and our weight are closely linked. Excess body fat has a negative effect on our immune function in a number of different ways but primarily through a process known as chronic inflammation. When we suffer an infection, a healthy functioning immune and inflammatory response protects us. But carrying excess body fat is known to result in chronic inflammation – a constant low-grade inflammation that has many negative impacts on health. Underlying chronic inflammation means that when we are exposed to a virus the cells that are responsible for mounting an attack do not function as effectively as they should and are less able to protect us.

Diabetes

It’s known that diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) is associated with more frequent and more severe infections. In the UK it was noted that compared to non-diabetics those with type 2 diabetes who contracted coronavirus had a threefold increased risk in death and those with type 1 diabetes had a fourfold increase. One study in China revealed that type 2 diabetics with poor glucose control had a 10-fold increases risk of death in comparison with those with better glucose control.

Unlike Type 1 diabetes, which is diagnosed early in life, our chances of developing Type 2 diabetes are significantly impacted by our diet. It’s now known we can reverse it through dietary intervention, something I have witnessed first hand on multiple occasions in my own clinical practice.

Can a vaccine save us?

Relying on medical intervention alone to save us is a risky business, whether that’s a vaccine to protect us from Covid or medications to manage chronic diseases. In his book, Aseem highlights the fact that obesity appears to reduce the response to vaccination and increase the risk of viruses mutating. This happens because viruses stay in the body for longer as a result of an inability to produce the full immune response, which allows the virus to replicate for longer and produce a new strain. On the other hand, several studies have revealed that exercise can significantly increase the antibody response to influenza vaccine. This goes to show the extent to which medical treatment can be significantly enhanced by improving our diet and lifestyle.

Ageing and immunity

We cannot ignore the impact of ageing on immunity, particularly with coronavirus given that it’s by far the biggest risk factor for death. Those aged over 65 account for 80 per cent of hospitalisation compared to those under 65, and are 23 times more likely to die.

But Aseem points to the fact that the overwhelming majority of those that died from COVID-19 in older age groups had at least one underlying condition, predominantly rooted in poor metabolic health. While we can’t slow down the speed at which the years pass, we can impact the speed at which our body ages through our diet and lifestyle choices.

Influencing immunity

An individual’s immune system is the result of a number of factors and some of them cannot be changed, such as age and genetics. But many of them can, such as diet, exercise, weight, alcohol and stress. As the saying goes ‘genes load the gun, environment pulls the trigger’.

Four steps to better metabolic (and immune) health:

So what can we do to support our metabolic health in order to support our immune defences? The 21-Day Immunity Plan highlights four key areas to address.

1. A low carb Mediterranean Diet

Poor diet is the most significant contributor to metabolic health disorders and is now responsible for more disease and death than physical inactivity, smoking and alcohol combined. Aseem describes ultra-processed foods and drink as “the number one enemy” in our western diets, making up more than a staggering 50 per cent of calories consumed on average in the UK. He highlights the major dietary culprits including a diet low in whole fruit and vegetables, inadequate intake of nuts and seeds, not enough omega 3 fats, not enough fibre, too much sugar, and a high intake of processed meat.

In The 21 Day Immunity Plan he explains how to identify and eliminate ultra-processed foods from your diet and outlines a clear strategy for how to eat to support metabolic and immune health. These principles are based on a nutrient dense, low carb Mediterranean diet approach.

2. Key nutrients

There’s been a lot of publicity around the link between vitamin D deficiency and worse outcomes from coronavirus. A study from Indonesia revealed a ten-fold difference in death rates between those with the lowest levels versus those with normal levels. It’s therefore vital to ensure your vitamin D levels are always optimised. In his book, Aseem discusses the importance of vitamin D and other immune–essential nutrients, along with how to establish your levels and what to do to make sure you’re getting enough.

A BMJ paper on Nutrition, Prevention and Health is quoted as saying: ‘What is clear is that conditions of nutrient deficiency impair the functioning of the immune system and increase susceptibility to infection.’ Ensuring optimal intake of key nutrients is an important step in supporting immune system health.

3. Exercise

The immune system is significantly influenced by physical activity. Just a single bout of moderate to vigorous exercise has been shown to enhance the immune system’s ability to function and fight infection more effectively. Over time, with regular exercise, these effects build up to strengthen immune defences. Moderate activity has an anti-inflammatory effect and is well known to improve metabolic health.

However, overly intense and prolonged bouts of exercise can have a negative impact on immune function, especially if the individual is not well rested or nourished. As with so many things, moderation is key. The Chief Medical Officer’s guidelines for adults state that we should be engaging in at least 150 minutes of moderate activity per week and/or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity per week, as well as some form of strength building exercise on at least two days per week.

4. Stress management

Chronic stress plays a significant role in the development of most chronic metabolic diseases. In the 21-day plan Aseem shares simple guidance and techniques for how to reduce stress which has proven to be a powerful tool in managing patients with heart disease.

Why 21 days?

There are three main reasons for a 21 day plan. The first is that for most people it takes three weeks to break any habit, in this case a sugar and ultra-processed food habit.

The second is that most people with adverse metabolic health will start to see marked improvements to their health and/or shape within three weeks. Aseem points to a number of different trials outlining the significant changes that can be made in a short period of time.

The third reason is the need to change the narrative around the impact of lifestyle changes and show that their effect on health can be rapid and substantial. We should use this to motivate ourselves to continue to reap the benefits of improved health for life.

This reflects what I have seen in my own clinical practice. Many of the clients I work with are amazed at how quickly nutrition and lifestyle optimisation can result in significant fat loss, increased energy and improved health markers. Of course, health improvement is a journey and not a quick fix, but it is witnessing the fruits of our labour – so to speak – that keeps us motivated to continue.

Lifestyle medicine: the future of healthcare

Like me, Aseem is a passionate advocate for ‘lifestyle medicine’. We share the fundamental belief that, when taken good care of, our body possesses an innate ability to heal itself. An ability far greater than that of many modern medical practices. We also share the belief that prevention is better than cure and that much can be done to protect ourselves from ill health - way beyond mask wearing and hand sanitising.

https://www.standard.co.uk/lifestyle/he ... 31671.html
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Re: Food Room

PostAuthor: Anthea » Tue Sep 01, 2020 3:24 am

NHS to prescribe shakes
and soups diet to diabetics


Thousands of people with type 2 diabetes are being enrolled into an NHS trial of 'soups and shakes' diet which has been proven to reverse the illness

A total of 5,000 patients in England have been signed up to trial the radical 12-month diet programme to slim them down and restore their health.

Volunteers will be restricted to just 800 calories per day - a third of an adult man's recommended daily intake and almost half of a woman's.

Their meals will be limited to blended shakes, bowls of soup and health bars for three months, before real, nutritious food is reintroduced for the remaining nine months.

Type 2 diabetes is linked in most cases to being overweight or obese, not doing enough exercise and consuming too much sugar.

The move is an expansion of a smaller trial after a 2018 study by Oxford University showed almost half of people who stuck to the soups and shakes plan saw their diabetes go into remission after a year.

Diabetes is estimated to cost the health service £10billion a year, while almost one in 20 prescriptions written by GPs are for diabetes treatment.

The condition is also one of the biggest risk factors in coronavirus deaths, with around a third of UK Covid-19 victims also suffering from the condition.

People with type 2 diabetes will be offered a soup and shakes weight-loss plan on the NHS

A trial of the soups and shakes diet found it is suitable for most people who want to lose weight and is effective because people consume fewer calories than they burn.

The 5,000 volunteers – who have all been diagnosed with diabetes in the last six years – will start the programmes today.

They will be told to swap out food for blended meal replacement shakes and soups for three months.

For the rest of the year, they will be coached by nutritionists, who will help reintroduce ordinary, nutritious meals into their diets and increase their exercise levels.

CAN DIABETES BE REVERSED?

It is possible to put type 2 diabetes into 'remission', when blood sugar levels are below the diabetes range and the patient no longer needs to take medication.

The term 'reversed' is not often used because it implies cured. But there is no guarantee a person who has had type 2 diabetes is free from the disease forever.

The strongest evidence for reaching type 2 diabetes remission points towards weight loss in people who are carrying extra weight or have obesity.

Scientists believe that storing too much fat in the liver and pancreas affects how type 2 diabetes develops and losing this fat can help put the disease into remission, according to Diabetes.org.

The website says: 'In fact, losing around 15kg significantly increases your chances of type 2 diabetes remission.'

It's easier to get diabetes into remission closer to the time of diagnosis.

Professor Jonathan Valabhji, NHS national clinical director for diabetes and obesity, said: 'This is the latest example of how the NHS, through our Long-Term Plan, is rapidly adopting the latest evidence-based treatments to help people stay well, maintain a healthy weight and avoid major diseases.

'There has never been a more important time to lose weight and put their type 2 diabetes into remission, so it's good news for thousands of people across the country that practical, supportive measures like this are increasingly available on the NHS.'

Bridget Turner, director of policy campaigns and improvement at Diabetes UK, said the programme is 'an important first step' for patients to access a remission programme within the NHS.

She said: 'We know that some people with type 2 diabetes want and need support from healthcare professionals to lose weight effectively, and now as these programmes are piloted across the NHS they will.

'People with type 2 diabetes who have put their diabetes into remission frequently tell us how it has changed their lives.

'We are so pleased to see that others will now have the same opportunity and hope that it won't be too long before more remission programmes are rolled out across the country.'

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease, affecting 90 per cent of all 4.7million diabetics in the UK.

Type 1 diabetes is caused when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to regulate the body's blood-sugar levels, and is generally caused by genetics.

Whereas type 2 is linked to obesity and eating too much sugar, which cause the body to become resistant to insulin.

Because type 2 is mostly caused by people's lifestyles, it can be reversed through low calorie and low sugar diets.

The trial comes just more than a month after Boris Johnson's Government launched a drive to tackle obesity after the Prime Minister realised his own weight may have contributed to him ending up in intensive care when he caught coronavirus.

TYPE 2 DIABETES CAN BE TRIGGERED BY A 'WEIGHT THRESHOLD'

Every person has a target weight they must stay below or they risk getting type 2 diabetes, a study suggests.

Researchers looking at half a million Britons said people appear to have a personal body mass index (BMI) threshold which triggers abnormal blood sugar levels.

They claim millions of people could avoid developing diabetes if they kept their weight in a healthy range below that target.

And for those who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the condition can be reversed entirely by aggressively reducing calories, the scientists say.

Because BMI is specific to each individual, everybody will have a different threshold at which they are deemed 'overweight' or 'obese' and risk developing diabetes.

For example, a 6ft (182cm) man would be considered healthy if they weighed 13 stone (82kg) whereas a 5ft 4inch (164cm) woman would be deemed obese.

BMI is a crude measure that uses height and weight to work out if someone is a healthy weight.

The researchers haven't given exact figures, but they say their findings will help doctors identify who is most at-risk of diabetes, based on their weight.

The study, conducted by the University of Cambridge, looked at 445,765 people in the UK Biobank.

Scientists found people deemed severely obese, who had a BMI of 35 or more, had an 11-fold increased risk of diabetes compared to the lowest group, with an average BMI of 21.7.

That was the case even when genetic predispositions to the condition - such as a family history of diabetes - were factored in.

Unveiling the findings at the annual European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress today, lead researcher Professor Brian Ference said the study was quite clear.

'The findings indicate that BMI is a much more powerful risk factor for diabetes that genetic predisposition,' he said.

'This suggests that when people cross a certain BMI threshold, their chances of diabetes go up and stay at that same high-risk level regardless of how long they are overweight.'

Mr Johnson said that since his recovery from the deadly illness he had focused on getting fitter by going on morning runs with his dog Dilyn, and he was pictured last week running in London with a personal trainer.

He has urged the nation to follow his lead, insisting the Government's 'better health strategy' will help people to 'bring their weight down' and better protect the NHS.

The UK is the second fattest country in Europe with two-thirds of adults above a healthy weight, according to Government data, and one in three children aged 10 to 11 are overweight or obese.

The Government's new anti-obesity strategy will attempt to bring an end to confectionery displays at shop checkouts and a ban on adverts for foods high in fat, sugar and salt on TV before 9pm.

Deals such as 'buy one get one free' on unhealthy foods will also be banned, while alcoholic drinks could soon have to list their calorie content.

Placing sugary and fatty items in prominent locations in stores will be stopped, including at checkouts and entrances, and online.

Instead, shops will be encouraged to promote healthier choices and offer more discounts on healthy food such as fruit and vegetables.

The Government will also hold a consultation on whether the ban on online adverts for foods high in salt, sugar and fat should apply at all times of the day.

Mr Johnson said in a video posted on Twitter to mark the launch of the strategy in July that 'like many people I struggle with my weight' and he had 'always wanted to lose weight for ages and ages'.

'But since I have recovered from coronavirus I have been steadily building up my fitness,' he said.

'I don't want to make any excessive claims because I have only just started concentrating on it but I am more than a stone down.

The diabetes trial comes amid Prime Minister Boris Johnson's pledge to try and help Britain lose weight as he himself has been improving his health since a brush with coronavirus that left him in intensive care (Pictured running in Buckinghamshire)

'When I went into ICU, when I was really ill, I was way overweight. I am only about five foot ten and I was too fat.

'I start the day by going for a run with the dog - quite a gentle run but actually getting faster and faster now as I get fitter.

'The great thing about going for a run at the beginning of the day is that nothing could be worse for the rest of the day.

'If you really go in hard, if you really take some exercise at the beginning, the rest of the day will be a breeze.'

Mr Johnson said the 'number one' benefit of losing weight is that you 'feel much better' and feel 'more full of energy'.

He continued: 'The other thing obviously is if you can get your weight down a bit and protect your health you will also be protecting the NHS.

'Gyms are great but you don't need to have a gym. There are amazing things on your phone these days, amazing apps, fantastic trainers that you can watch on YouTube.

'What we are doing now with our better health strategy is just trying to help people a little bit to bring their weight down - not in an excessively bossy or nannying way, I hope.

'We want this one really to be sympathetic to people, to understand the difficulties that people face with their weight, the struggles that everybody faces, that many, many people face, to lose weight and just to be helpful.'

As the impact of coronavirus on overweight people has become abundantly clear, scientists have begun human trials of a 'potentially life-saving' treatment for coronavirus patients with diabetes.

Doctors will test an AstraZeneca-made drug called AZD1656 to see if it can reduce the risk of serious illness or death for infected diabetics.

Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes face up to three times the risk of dying if they catch Covid-19, an array of studies have shown.

NHS data shows that, of all specifically categorised illnesses (i.e. not 'other'), diabetes was the most common underlying condition among people who died of Covid-19 up to August 20, accounting for more than a quarter of all victims

The experimental drug being tested is called a glucose kinase activator - it is designed to reduce blood sugar and is still in clinical trial phases for use on type 2 diabetes and kidney transplant patients.

What are Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes the insulin producing cells in the pancreas to be destroyed, preventing the body from being able to produce enough insulin to regulate blood glucose levels.

If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can, over time, seriously damage the body's organs.

Patients diagnosed with type 1 are treated with insulin.

It has sometimes be referred to as juvenile diabetes, but the term regarded as outdated because the condition can develop at any age.

Type 2 diabetes is a condition which causes a person's blood sugar to get too high.

Over 4 million people in the UK are thought to have some form of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is associated with being overweight and you may be more likely to get it if it's in the family.

The condition means the body does not react properly to insulin – the hormone which controls absorption of sugar into the blood – and cannot properly regulate sugar glucose levels in the blood.

Excess fat in the liver increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes as the buildup makes it harder to control glucose levels, and also makes the body more resistant to insulin.

Weight loss is the key to reducing liver fat and getting symptoms under control.

It will be trialled on up to 150 Covid-19 patients from NHS hospitals over the next four months.

Researchers hope it will prevent the immune systems of diabetic patients from over-reacting to coronavirus, which can be deadly.

The firm running the trial on patients in hospital said it was 'potentially life-saving' and 'has the potential to make a huge difference'.

Although the reason people with diabetes are at greater risk from coronavirus is not perfectly understood, it is thought to be down to immune system dysfunction.

Those with the illnesses, which mean the body is unable to control sugar levels in the blood, tend to be at greater risk of infections in general.

Wounds and illnesses are slower to heal in people with diabetes and they are more at risk of complications because high levels of sugar can damage vital molecules in the immune system.

If they catch Covid-19 people with the conditions appear to be more likely to develop pneumonia or to have a deadly immune system over-reaction.

This applies both to type 1 diabetes, which cannot be prevented, and type 2 diabetes which is often brought on by unhealthy lifestyles — a bad diet and not exercising.

Studies suggest that people with type 1 diabetes have a more than three times higher risk of death with Covid-19 than a healthy person, and those with type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to die, according to the NHS .

Scientists at Excalibur Healthcare Services, which has organised and got funding for the trial, hope that AZD1656 will stop diabetic patients' immune systems from over-reacting to Covid-19.

The glucokinase activator, made by Cambridge-based AstraZeneca, is designed to be used to reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.

Tests have proved it is safe and it is undergoing mass human trials to check it works effectively, aimed at people with type 2 diabetes and people who have had kidney transplants.

The coronavirus trial, named ARCADIA, is being run with the help of the British medical research charity St George Street.

The drug will be trialled on coronavirus patients in UK hospitals who have 'mild to moderate' symptoms.

If it works the company suggested the drug could be prescribed by a GP to diabetic people who have early symptoms of Covid-19.

The ARCADIA trial has received approval from the governmental Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)
.
Our patients felt 10 years younger after losing two stone, writes ROY TAYLOR, Professor of Medicine and Metabolism at Newcastle University

For decades, the scourge of type 2 diabetes has caused untold misery. Almost four million Britons are now living with the condition.

Incredibly, one in six NHS beds is occupied by a patient with the condition, which can lead to terrible complications and shortens sufferers’ lives by an average of six years – all while costing taxpayers £10billion a year.

Yet, after decades in which the news on diabetes and obesity only seemed to be getting worse, this could all at last be about to change.

As today’s Mail reveals, under a new and pioneering NHS pilot scheme, doctors will prescribe a three-month low-calorie diet of soups and shakes to 5,000 people living with diabetes across England.

Professor Roy Taylor who is a professor of medicine and metabolism at Newcastle University
How late-night snacking can pack on the pounds

It is the time of day when it is finally possible to relax, open up a bottle of wine and maybe a bag of crisps.

But those who eat too much in the evening may be risking a weight gain.

A study of almost 1,200 people looked at how much of their daily calories they consumed past 6pm.

This ranged from less than a third on average, to almost half. Those who ate the least in the evening were found to consume about 170 fewer calories during the day – the equivalent of half a chocolate bar.

Lead study author Judith Baird, from Ulster University, said: ‘Some people may eat more in the evenings because we tend to get hungrier as the day goes on.

‘It may feel like they need to eat more to feel full.

‘Next, we wish to explore dietary patterns, such as snacking, and possibly where and how people eat, such as with others, in the kitchen or in front of the television.’

The study, which is due to be presented at the European and International Conference on Obesity this week, studied 1,177 people in the UK, aged from 19 to 64.

Previous studies have found that people who eat a greater percentage of their calories in the evening are more likely to be obese.

If successful, the technique could be rolled out across the country, where I believe it could potentially arrest diabetes in millions of patients, helping them to achieve long-term remission from this terrible condition.

The programme is based on clear evidence that type 2 diabetes can be conquered – and even reversed – if people lose enough weight.

And it is all the more timely, of course, given everything we know about how much worse people with obesity and diabetes often fare when they are hit by the coronavirus.

I have been working at the forefront of diabetes research for over 30 years so I naturally welcome this vital and long-overdue intervention.

In fact, my team at Newcastle University was the first to pinpoint the precise connection between being susceptible to a little more fat than you can cope with and developing type 2 diabetes in 2011.

I calculated that a person would need to lose at least two-and-a-half stone for the diabetes to be reversed.

Despite widespread scepticism from experts who thought that the disease would return once the patients stopped their diet, we showed that type 2 diabetes can be reversed – permanently – simply by losing weight.

In our latest study, also funded by Diabetes UK, we put 149 overweight patients with type 2 on a liquid diet of 800 calories a day for 12 weeks followed by a gradual switch back to normal foods.

Two years later, over one-third of them had no diabetes.

Others improved so much that the tablets they took to treat the condition could be reduced or stopped, even though their diabetes may not have gone into remission.

Those who lost two stone or more, and kept the weight off, had normal blood sugar levels and no longer needed diabetes drugs two years on.

And all of them benefited in terms of their overall health.

One person who was due to have a knee replacement operation even found that their pain went away so they cancelled the surgery. It was all hugely cheering.

What astonished me most, however, was that our patients all found the whole process much easier than they – or we – had expected. They reported feeling much more energetic after only a couple of weeks into the weight loss.

Under a new and pioneering NHS pilot scheme, doctors will prescribe a three-month low-calorie diet of soups and shakes to 5,000 people living with diabetes across England

The most common comment was: ‘I feel 10 years younger.’

Rates of cancer and heart attacks were also far lower than in a matched set of patients following NHS guidelines and taking tablets for their diabetes.

That study reinforced how absolutely essential diet is to treating diabetes.

To do anything about the condition, one must start in the kitchen. Of course, exercise is great for overall health, but, as they say, you can’t outrun a bad diet.

During our research, we came across what must be the best-kept secret in weight loss: Do not start an exercise programme until after you have lost some weight with a calorie-controlled diet.

It’s only after losing a significant amount of weight that we advise people to increase their physical activities.

This pilot scheme will be supervised by experienced medical professionals to ensure that patients will lose weight in a safe and healthy manner.

Furthermore, the subjects will get a lot of support, whether that is one-to-one advice or support from their peers who will find themselves in a similar position.

The new NHS England programme builds on important insights gleaned from 20 years of research.

For people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, health may start here.

Professor Roy Taylor’s Life Without Diabetes: The Definitive Guide To Understanding and Reversing Type 2 Diabetes is published by Short Books at £9.99.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/arti ... betes.html
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Re: Food Room

PostAuthor: Anthea » Fri Sep 04, 2020 5:52 pm

30 Days to a Smarter Brain

How to Rapidly Improve How You Think

Everyone wants a better, and smarter brain to process information faster and have better memory recall.

The most brilliant minds don’t have more brain power than the average person, they just use their brains more efficiently.

Your brain’s health is a product of your daily habits.

To optimize your brain, all you have to do is make slight adjustments to your routine.

30 days offer just enough time to realistically adopt new habits that can help you get smarter and think better, yet long enough to be challenging.

In 30 days or less, you can adopt some of these habits to boost your brain power, improve your mental clarity and build a better brain.

Exhaust Your Brain

    Challenge yourself with a whole new experience.

    Do more of what exhausts your brain.

    Your brain needs exhaustion to grow.
Take up new, cognitively demanding activity — something new you’ve never done before: dancing, piano lessons, a foreign language — is more likely to boost brain processing speed, strengthen synapses, and expand or create functional networks.

“When you’re learning something new, and your brain is feeling like it wants to take a nap, that’s when you know you’re doing things that are growing your brain neurologically, not just maintaining it,” says Dr. Jennifer Jones, a psychologist, and expert in the science of success.

Every time you learn something, you create new connections, and the more connections you can maintain, the easier it will be to retain new information in the future.

Stop Feeding Your Comfort

Comfort provides a state of mental security.

When you’re comfortable and life is good, your brain can release chemicals like dopamine and serotonin, which lead to happy feelings.

But in the long-term, comfort is bad for your brain.

    Without mental stimulation dendrites, connections between brain neurons that keep information flowing, shrink or disappear altogether
An active life increases dendrite networks and also increase the brain’s regenerating capacity, known as plasticity.

“Neglect of intense learning leads plasticity systems to waste away,” says Norman Doidge in his book, The Brain That Changes Itself.

Michael Merzenich, a pioneer of plasticity research, and author of Soft-wired: How the New Science of Brain Plasticity Can Change Your Life says that going beyond the familiar is essential to brain health.

“It’s the willingness to leave the comfort zone that is the key to keeping the brain new,” he says.

Seeking new experiences, learning new skills, and opening the door to new ideas inspire us and educate us in a way improves mental clarity.

Anything that makes you really comfortable is not really good for your brain

When you are inside your comfort zone you may be outside of the enhancement zone.”

“Your brain needs novelty to grow,” says Jones. Stepping out of your comfort zone literally stretches your brain by allowing the dendrites to become like big trees with full branches rather than little shrubs

Start Mind Focus Exercises

Embrace mindfulness.

There’s plenty of research that shows meditation increases the grey matter in your brain.

Meditation can increase the thickness of regions that control attention and process sensory signals from the outside world.

Yes, meditation makes your brain bigger (literally).

Meditation is the art of silencing the mind.

When the mind is silent, concentration is increased and we experience inner peace and more.

But concentration requires a great amount of effort and time.

In less time than it takes you to have lunch, you could be expanding your brain — literally.

Just like building muscles, you can beneficially build the strength and even the size of your brain in the healthiest and most natural of ways.

Meditation has been proven to benefit the brain.

    “Although the practice of meditation is associated with a sense of peacefulness and physical relaxation, practitioners have long claimed that meditation also provides cognitive and psychological benefits that persist throughout the day,” says study senior author Sara Lazar of the MGH Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research Program and a Harvard Medical School instructor in psychology.
The problem is getting started.

It’s kind of like going to the gym. We all know we should do it, but ..

If you do decide to give it a try, you can use Headspace, an app that bills itself as “a gym membership for your mind.”

Your Brain Needs You to Read Every Day

Reading heightens brain connectivity.

    Our brains change and develop in some fascinating ways when we read
As you read these words, your brain is decoding a series of abstract symbols and synthesizing the results into complex ideas.

It’s an amazing process.

The reading brain can be likened to the real-time collaborative effort of a symphony orchestra, with various parts of the brain working together, like sections of instruments, to maximize our ability to decode the written text in front of us.

Reading rewires parts of your brain. Maryanne Wolf explains in her book, Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain:

    Human beings invented reading only a few thousand years ago. And with this invention, we rearranged the very organization of our brain, which in turn expanded the ways we were able to think, which altered the intellectual evolution of our species. . . . Our ancestors’ invention could come about only because of the human brain’s extraordinary ability to make new connections among its existing structures, a process made possible by the brain’s ability to be reshaped by experience
Reading involves several brain functions, including visual and auditory processes, phonemic awareness, fluency, comprehension, and more.

The same neurological regions of the brain are stimulated by reading about something as by experiencing it.

According to the ongoing research at Haskins Laboratories for the Science of the Spoken and Written Word, reading, unlike watching or listening to media, gives the brain more time to stop, think, process, and imagine the narrative in from of us.

Reading every day can slow down late-life cognitive decline and keeps the brains healthier.

Start a Journaling Habit

Getting a full night of sleep, going for a run, maintaining a healthy diet, and keeping up with family and friends all have well-documented and significant impacts on overall cognitive function.

What’s even more important for your total well-being is journaling.

Journaling helps you prioritize, clarify thinking, and accomplish your most important tasks, over urgent busy work.

Numerous studies (of the scientifically rigorous variety) have shown that personal writing can help people better cope with stressful events, relieve anxiety, boost immune cell activity.

    Judy Willis MD, a neurologist, and former classroom teacher explains, “The practice of writing can enhance the brain’s intake, processing, retaining, and retrieving of information… it promotes the brain’s attentive focus … boosts long-term memory, illuminates patterns, gives the brain time for reflection, and when well-guided, is a source of conceptual development and stimulus of the brain’s highest cognition.”
Don’t Sit Still

Sitting still all day, every day is dangerous.

Love it or hate it, physical activity can have potent effects on your brain and mood.

    The brain is often described as being “like a muscle”. Its needs to be exercised for better performance
Research shows that moving your body can improve your cognitive function.

What you do with your body impinges on your mental faculties.

Find something you enjoy, then get up and do it. And most importantly, make it a habit.

Build a better exercise routine, and maintain it.

Simple aerobic exercise such as walking 30–45 minutes of brisk walking, three times a week, can help fend off the mental wear and tear, and improve episodic memory and executive-control functions by about 20 percent, according to Art Kramer of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Take a Good and Undisturbed Sleep

A good sleep reduces both physical and mental stress.

The brain accomplishes reorganization of information during sleep.

Importantly, a short afternoon nap (called the power nap) serves as an energy booster for the brain

Scientists have known for decades that the brain requires sleep to consolidate learning and memory.

Far from being lazy, napping is scientifically proven to help improve concentration and boost productivity when you reach a brain power plateau.

Studies on napping suggest that it increases reaction speed and helps with learning — provided naps are no longer than 20 minutes.

Do Nothing for a Change

Doing nothing is a skill.

Busyness can be counterproductive.

It’s hard, we know, but doing nothing is a good way to refocus your brain and help you pay attention to the present time.

Spending time unplugged, disconnected, and in silence can improve your focus, productivity, and creativity.

….learning to do nothing will help you retake control of your attention at other times, too. One trick: schedule “do nothing” time, like you’d schedule tasks. Just don’t expect others to understand when you decline some social event on the grounds that you’re busy not being busy”, says Oliver Burkeman.

Neuroscience also reveals that silence has nourishing benefits for your brain.

The neuroscientist Marcus Raichle says his best thinking happens in quiet places. For Raichle, silence was shorthand for thoughtful solitude.

The brain is actively internalizing and evaluating information during silence.

A study by Duke University regenerative biologist, Imke Kirste, found that two hours of silence per day prompted cell development in the hippocampus, the brain region related to the formation of memory, involving the senses.

Exceptional creativity often happens in solitude.

Thomas Oppong is the founder of AllTopStartups and writes on science-based answers to problems in life about creativity, productivity, and self-improvement.

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